It is very common to drown in whitewater being pinned in your boat or upside down being flushed against a strainer, bridge abutment etc. You can be recirculated in a hydraulic or keeper hole and never be able to get air that is free of water and spray to breath.
In large ocean waves you can be held down in a breaking wave longer than you can hold your breath. You can also aspirate spray that will cause your trachea to close off and your lungs to fill with fluid, so you can drown while still floating on the surface .
Canoe / Kayak Anchors
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